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An unusual series of four-coordinate, pseudo-tetrahedral iron(II) complexes that undergo spin crossover near or above room temperature is described. The spin-crossover behavior originates in part from the electronic flexibility of a phosphiniminato (−N═PR3) ligand, which can engage in varying degrees of π-bonding with the metal. The resulting spin equilibria have been quantitatively modeled with the aid of UV-vis and NMR spectroscopies, and correlations with the electronic and steric properties of the ligands have been determined.
Low-coordinate transition-metal complexes that undergo spin crossover remain rare. We report here a series of four-coordinate, pseudo-tetrahedral P3FeII–X complexes supported by tris(phosphine)borate P3 ([PhBP3R]−) and phosphiniminato X-type ligands (−N═PR3′) that, in combination, tune the spin-crossover behavior of the system. Most of the reported iron complexes undergo spin crossover at temperatures near or above room temperature in solution and in the solid state. The change in spin state coincides with a significant change in the degree of π-bonding between Fe and the bound N atom of the phosphiniminato ligand. Spin crossover is accompanied by striking changes in the ultraviolet–visible (UV-vis) absorption spectra, which allows for quantitative modeling of the thermodynamic parameters of the spin equilibria. These spin equilibria have also been studied by numerous techniques including paramagnetic nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), infrared, and Mössbauer spectroscopies; X-ray crystallography; and solid-state superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry. These studies allow qualitative correlations to be made between the steric and electronic properties of the ligand substituents and the enthalpy and entropy changes associated with the spin equilibria.
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